When an electron is outside or an atom is a particle with three inherent properties:


  1. Mass
  2. Negative electrostatic charge
  3. Spin -- which gives the particle an angular momentum plus a north and south pole magnetism.
  • Upon entering the atom the electron becomes an orbiting wave. Through its motion, its particle properties are transformed to have a new structural quality:
    1. Its mass, revolving in orbit, creates a top-like angular momentum which gives the whole orbit a stabilizing force.
    2. The electrostatic charge is evenly distributed over the pathway as if the entire circle were a homogenous cloud of negative electricity.
    3. The moving electrostatic charge causes the orbit to become a dipole magnetic field like a current-loop. The faster the electron completes its cycle, the greater is its orbital magnetism.
    4. The spin magnetic field is also smeared throughout the orbit, overlaying a second magnetic field on the orbital one. Spin can point in the same direction or in the direction opposite to the orbital field.
    5. The matter-wave itself acts as a force since it has the capacity to resist intersection from other electrons' matter-waves.
    6. With this set of properties, each electron within the atom is able to interact with other atomic electrons. As pseudo-objects, these matter-wave orbits perform in the manner of real electro-magnetic-mechanical items.

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